Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Capital Punishment Essay: Criminals Can Think Twice or Die Once

Capital punishment has been in effect since the 1600's (Cole 451). However, in 1972 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty was cruel and unusual punishment, which was unconstitutional according to the Eighth amendment. It was public opinion that the current methods of execution, hanging, electrocution, and facing a firing squad, were too slow and painful upon the person to be executed (Cole 451). The U.S. Supreme Court reversed this decision when a "cleaner" way to bring about death was found in 1976. This "cleaner" way is death by lethal injection, which is quick and painless if administered right (Cole 450). Since capital punishment has been reinstituted many people have argued for and against capital punishment. Some say the death penalty is what the criminal deserves while others object to it because death is irreversible. I feel the death penalty is a good form of justice because only about 250 people a year get the death penalty and they are guilty beyond a doubt a nd don't deserve living with the possibility of parole. The sentencing judge or jury are ordered by the Supreme Court to look for "specific aggravating and mitigating factors in deciding which convicted murderers should be sentenced to death" (Cole 451). Some of these mitigating factors are the defendant's motivation, character, personal history, and most of all remorse (Costanzo). Every year approximately 250 new offenders are added to death row. In 1994 there were 2,850 persons awaiting execution. Yet no more than thirty-eight people have been executed a year since 1976. This is a ridiculously low number compared to 199 persons executed in 1935 (all from Cole 451). The reason for this slow execution rate is the process of appeals, from sentencin... ... is a punishment that will remain active for a long time in the future, even with all the criticism. It is an ancient way of dealing with extremely serious offences that plague our country today. Hopefully the appeals process will be shortened, but remain effective, so more criminals can be executed, making prospective criminals think twice. Works Cited Bailey, William C., "Murder, Capital Punishment, and Deterrence" 1994. Journal of Social Issues. Cole, George F., The American System fo Criminal Justice 1995, New York. Costanzo, Mark "Attorney Persuasion in the Capital Penalty Phase" 1994. Journal of Social Issues. Death Penalty Discussion, Sept. 12, 1994. Search on Turbogopher under "Execution". Death Penalty, May 12, 1994. American Civil Liberties Union. Search on Turbogopher under "Execution". The Electric Chair, Aug 13, 1993.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Database Applications Used in Our Organization Essay

Our company has really advanced in terms of database management. Initially, they were using Microsoft Access database application soft but recently they introduced Oracle database application. This change has been brought about by the economic growth in the country which has in turn seen our organization grow significantly. Microsoft Access database application is the commonest database application that is used by majority of the firms especially the small one. One of the benefits of using this database is that it is relatively compatible with Structure query language (SQL). Most organizations have made use of the software for one is that it’s in expensive to maintain and secondly it’s because most employees are family with its application. Our company has not been an exception; we have over the years been using the software to store all our data in it and were able to retrieve the information without difficultness. The database application software is very useful in out organization as we have eliminated the use of papers in our office. This has also increase the efficiency of activities within and outside the organization. This has ensured that tasks are accomplished faster within the organization and this ensures that organizational goals and objectives are achieved in the long run. Previous, the use of paper work in the organization would lead to some processed being delayed and this in turn to delay to completion of a deal that would have benefited the organization financially. For this case, elimination of the paper work has seen deals being completed faster and the company gains financially. Recently, the management saw the need of introducing advanced database application software that would be able to accommodate the huge data the need to be store within our system. Due to this reason, they proposed to introduce Oracle database application software in the organization although the Microsoft Access database application software is still in use. The reason of using both is to ensure that all employees familiarize with the new system before implementing the Oracle database application fully in the organization. Another reason of maintaining both systems in the organization is because it would take time for the organization to transfer the entire data store in the Microsoft Access to the Oracle system. There is still room for improvement as far as database management is concerned in our organization to ensure that our services are delivery even faster so that we can increase our sale and achieve our organizational goals and objectives. For this case, the organization needs to ensure that all employees familiarize themselves with the Oracle database application software so that we can get rid of Microsoft Access. It is always wise for an organization to advance with technology since many large organization are no longer using the Microsoft Access and incase they interact, they might be a problem due to compatibility of information. There is also a need for the organization to introduce DB2 database application software which is also cost effective database application software. Organizations especially large one like ours should ensure they get rid of paper work which slows processes within the organization. They should adopt database application software that is cost effective in term of number of employees to be employed to handle and maintain company’s data and speed of processing information within the organization.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

A Comparison of Justice in The Tempest and Merchant of...

Justice in The Tempest and Merchant of Venice nbsp; In both Merchant of Venice and The Tempest, Shakespeare proposes ideas of justice and mercy that hold true in both plays. In order to see if the actions taken were just and/or merciful, definitions of these words must be set up. If we were to assume that Shakespeares definition of mercy was what Portia espoused in act four, scene one, specifically lines 205 - 206, the definition of mercy must be viewed in a biblical sense. Thus, in order to judge if something is merciful, one must look to see if it fulfills the qualifications of mercy in the New Testament. However, the idea of justice is quite different, for my definition of justice, I will turn to Charles Mills definition, for,†¦show more content†¦During the trial, it would be fair to say that mercy was given to Antonio and not Shylock. For Antonio, the other cheek was turned and he was able to be spared the loss of his life -- even though he had entered into a contract in which he put this on the line. On the other hand, money was not given to Shylock who not only was not reimbursed the money that he lent out, but he was also harmed by being forced to convert. However, when looking at why mercy was given to one and not the other, we must look at how justice was applied. In Antonios case, he is a Catholic merchant from Europe, unlike the prince of Morocco. However, even though Shylock was also a European, he was not a Christian -- justice did not apply. However, in context, was justice served? Of course it was served, for not only was the spirit of it upheld but it was also carried out how it was meant to be carried out. Thus, in The Merchant of Venice, justice and mercy intermingle providing mercy only to the people that receive justice. nbsp; In The Tempest, Shakespeare again uses the concepts of justice and mercy in order to have his audience think about what just and merciful actions were taken. At the end of the play, when Prospero releases Caliban from his bondage, this action, by definition, is merciful, but in no way is it just. By releasing Caliban from his control, Prospero has taken a love thy neighbor as yourself mentality and, this, is merciful. However, when determining ifShow MoreRelatedTragic Drama According to AC Bradleys Theory of Shakespeare and a Comparison of Arthur Miller and August Wilsons Concept of Tragedy2899 Words   |  12 Pagesnot contemptible. Hence, with the true greatness of the hero attaches the tragic impression. This combination of greatness with tragedy attached to it is Shakespeares impression of waste (Wyandotte 2002). Shakespeare further presents an idea of Justice in his plays. In his plays, we find no traces of wrong doers reaping the fruits of what they have sown. The reason can be his lack of interest to hereditary however; he has given special regard to fate. The dilemma of fate is its vast and fixed natureRead MoreA Picatrix Miscellany52019 Words   |  209 Pagesmake a digression on overt and covert meaning and the relation of this distinction to the psychology of cognition. The various ways of knowing God are given as an example. Parts of the argument are to be found in a minor work by al-Gazzà ¢là ®. The comparison, frequent in Islamic literature, between the incomprehensibility of God and the intolerable brilliance of light, is used by way of illustration (pp.177-79). This is followed by speculation as to the reason why, of the twenty-eight letters of the

Friday, December 27, 2019

What is a Computer - 762 Words

What is a computer? When trying to explain the computer to my grandparents I realizing just how complicated it is Explaining what it is and why it’s so powerful, the differences between data and information and how the computer knows what to do. First what is a computer? A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can†¦show more content†¦ARPANETs main job was to research computer networking in order to provide a safe, secure communications system in case of war. (Internet) If we didn’t have computers we wouldn’t have so much information at our finger tips it is astonishing to think how computers came about, how would we get answers so quickly. A second reason why computers are powerful is because people make them powerful by putting mass information and data into them for easy access latter. Third there is a difference between data and information Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organized. And information is when data is processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make it useful, it is called Information (contributors.) Information is interpreted data. An example of data is a single person’s bowling score is one piece of data and information is The Bowling team’s average score is the information that can be concluded from the given data. (Introductory com2) Finally how does a computer know what to do? 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Confidentiality:Read MoreDeciding What Computer to Purchase789 Words   |  3 PagesComputers, laptops, tablet, and smart phones have become a big necessity in the daily lives of many Americans today. They each give us mobility to communicate with the rest of the world and get any type of news at the touch of a finger tip. They can be used for many things like sending emails, watching videos, having web conference calls as well as many other things. What kind of things does a person look for when they are deciding to buy a computer or other electronic device? Does it matter theRead MoreWhat Are the Disadvantages of Computer Addiction?900 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussing options for computer addiction treatment, one point regarding addiction to the computer needs to be made : Computer addiction is not an official psychiatric diagnosis. 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But before people can enjoy them someone has to create the program to run the device. That’s were computer engineers come in. The field itself branches off into many fields including cybersecurity, networking, computer software, computer hardware. They have the difficult task of designing the body and mind of the computer. Computer engineering is an ever-growing field that makes computers smaller, faster, and more efficientRead MoreComputer Science: What is the Electronic Control Unit774 Words   |  3 Pagesthese electronics increases. These smart mini-computers are used in almost everything that runs on electricity today. Microprocessors can be found in many household items including refrigerators, televisions, gaming systems, washer/dryers, and many other items. More importantly, t he introduction of the microprocessor and microcontroller to the automobile was a breakthrough in vehicle safety and engine efficiency. With the use of these mini-computers we now have safety features like anti-lock brake

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Civil Rights Movement Essay - 1259 Words

The civil right movement refers to the reform movement in the United States beginning in the 1954 to 1968 led primarily by Blacks for outlawing racial discrimination against African-Americans to prove the civil rights of personal Black citizen. For ten decades after the Emancipation Proclamation, African-Americans in Southern states still live a rigid unequal world of deprive right of citizenship, segregation and various forms of oppression, including race-inspired violence. â€Å"Jim Crow† laws at the local and state levels. The nonviolent protest and civil disobedient were used by the civil right activist to bring change. Many leaders within the Black community and beyond distinguished during the Civil Rights era, including†¦show more content†¦Forced integration led to much violence. The most notable instance challenged in 1957 of federal orders by Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas, ordered the Arkansas National Guard to prevent integration in Little Rock. Presiden t Eisenhower responded by sending federal troops to enforce the court order for integration. The refusal to admit the first black to Mississippi University in 1962 as the segregation was seen illegal by the Supreme Court but the federal government did little to protect. Meredith was given a twenty-four hour protection wherever he goes on the campus. While the battle intensifies over the schools, an awakened civil rights movement among American blacks began to protest segregation in other areas of national life. Rosa Parks worked as a secretary for the local branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks got arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man. This led the segregation of public transportation to come under attack. The law required that should the white section of the bus become full, African-Americans to sit in the back of city buses and to give up their seats to whites. Rosa Parks was a we ll-respected and dignified figure in the community, her arrest was finally enough to convince African-Americans that they could no longer forbearance discriminatory laws. On December 5, members of the African-AmericanShow MoreRelatedThe Rise Of The Civil Rights Movement1179 Words   |  5 Pagessegregations. Out of the numerous elements that arose in the 1960s, there are three movements that truly affected the American society. Firstly, the rise of the civil rights movement was greatly influenced by racial discrimination of colored people in the South. Secondly, the women’s movement aimed to convince the society that women are capable of achieving and maintaining higher waged job like males. Lastly, the gay rights movement aimed to gain acceptance and stop discrimination of homosexuality. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

The Progressive and the Fixed Tax System-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Do Comparison between the Progressive and the Fixed Tax System. Answer: Introduction The report proposes to discuss on the topic whether progressive tax system is seen to be fairer in perspective of a taxpayer in Canadian context in the province of Alberta. It also aims to find whether the amount of taxes paid by a taxpayer is appropriate given his or her income level. Some of the important consideration of the topic has been seen to be dealing with conceptualization of fair taxation system and discern which of the system will result in less overall taxes being paid by the taxpayer or whether the amount is appropriate with the given income level (Alm, 2014). Scope and limitation The main form of the scope and the limitation will be only based on the assessment of fair taxation system rather than the consideration of fixed taxation system. The various scope of the study is related to the Canadian taxation system regulations in the province of Alberta. The study will only examine the advantages and disadvantages of progressive and fair taxation system and also discern whether the amount of taxes paid by a taxpayer is appropriate given his or her income level and consider the amount of tax paid as per the same. The limitation in the research methodology will be only considered by the interpretation of secondary data through application of qualitative research techniques. Some of the other limitation has been based on the application of deductive research (Chiroleu-Assouline Fodha, 2014). Overview and Comparison between the Progressive and the Fixed Tax System Progressive Tax System Overview Progressive tax system is identified as that taxation system in which the tax rate increases at an increasing amount. Progressive in general has been indented as the determination tax progression from low to high. The resultant consideration of taxpayer has been considered with taxpayers average tax, which is discerned less than the persons marginal tax rate. The aforementioned terms may be applied with the tax incidence of people with a lower ability to pay, as the this shift may be a result of the ability of the people to pay from higher to lower ability of paying tax. The main form of the implementation of the term has been evident with personal income tax where the people have lower income percentage to pay rather than higher income. The adjustments of the tax base have been considered with tax exemptions, tax credits, or selective taxation system. Based on the Canadian tax system some of the main examples of progressive tax system have been discerned with property tax, sales tax on luxury goods, or the exemption of sales taxes on basic necessities. Some of the various types of the other consideration of the progressive tax can be seen with increasing tax burden for families with higher income group and reduction of the tax with the lower income group. The progressive tax system is recognised with the consideration of the various types of the factors which has been seen to be associated to the refundable tax. This particular form of the taxation has a direct impact on reducing the income inequality. In 2016, the individuals below $ 9275 of the taxable income need to make a payment of 10% on the income tax. The progressivity of a tax system has been seen to be based on the various types of the associated factor which has been seen with the direct related to the tax system as per the rise of tax with the income of an individual. One particular example of the progressive tax system is seen to be evident with the consideration with the various types of the asso ciated factors has been seen to be related to the tax code following a lower rate of 10% and a high rate of 30%, and another tax code has income tax rates ranging from 10% to 80% (Lee, 2016). Advantages Progressive tax is conducive in reducing the income inequality and fairer way of taxation system. The main form of the benefit of the progressive taxation system has been considered with reduction in the income inequality. The income inequality has been considered with that segment of the population, which is seen to consider a larger share of the economys wealth in one particular segment. The fairer consideration of the progressive taxation system includes payment of taxes at a flat rate for those who will be able to earn as much are not required to pay as much back. In this procedure, the individuals will be able to get the most out of the systems supporting the same (Pntya et al., 2016). The biggest advantage of progressive tax has been is depicted with people who are earning more income and falling under lower income category. Hence, in this particular method the systems will be able to put lesser pressure on the lesser capable middle class of the population (Saad, 2014). The sys tem is seen with the sense of satisfaction which has been considered with the distribution of the taxes as per the income of the individuals. Henceforth, the application of these types of the tax system will be able to ensure proper allocation of the tax in a country. Another significant benefit of the application of the progressive taxation system is based on the various type of the important consideration which has been seen to be associated with the direct relevance of the several of the factors which needs to be evaluated as per the increasing nature of the taxable base (Saez, 2013). The main form of the advantage of the progressive tax has been seen with reducing the tax burden with the individuals who will be able to afford the same. These systems will be able to leave money among the low wage earners and those who will be able to stimulate the overall economy. The different types of the progressive tax systems will be having the ability to collect more amount of tax than the flat taxes along with the various types of the regressive taxes. The tax rate is seen to be increasing with the increment in the income, the progressive taxes are able to allow the people with the highest amount of the resources to a greater portion of the services to all the people and business with first responders and snow removal (Doerrenberg Peichl, 2013). Disadvantages The main form of the disadvantage of this type of the taxation system has been seen to be based on the various types of the important consideration which has been related to the factors related to punishing those individuals working hard and earning money in a particular way which discourages people for work as there is not added incentives for the people having higher income and the earning sufficient amount of money. Another significant limitation of the tax evasion system takes into account with cases of tax evasion and rich people who will be able to exploit the possible means of paying less tax (Mustapha Obid, 2015). Henceforth, this system shows that the tax payers are more prone to evade taxes. Another significant form of the disadvantage of the progressive taxation system is based on the varied factors which has been associated to the different types of the issues related to the scope of the manipulation of the tax and hence in this system the individual are not able to main tain an uniform tax rate. In several types of the other occasion the different types of the factors for the payment of the tax as per the progressive system of the taxation is seen to be related to dependent and subjective as the personal opinions given by the tax officials (Bacher Brlhart, 2013). Fixed Tax System Overview Fixed tax is discerned as a lump sum amount of tax which has been seen to be based on the consideration of the various types of the factors related to the measurement of the taxes as a percentage of the taxes as per the tax base. Fixed taxes are considered as poll or sin tax which are often seen to be considered as regressive in nature. As the citizens are able to share a common road, protection of military, policing and varies types of the other factors related to the different factors other than government, some of the individual, are seen to be of the opinion that the consideration of the fixed taxation system should include the citizen to pay for basic infrastructure (Isa, 2014). The fixed form of the taxation system has been based on the various types of the consideration associated to maintaining a constant marginal rate and usually seen to be applied to individuals with specific corporate income. The true form of the foxed taxation system has been discerned to be based on the varied types of the consolation which has been seen to be based on the deductions made as per the majority of the existing deductions made in the taxation system. The consideration of the charitable deductions is seen to be based on the varied types of the factors which has seen with charitable deductions and in several types of the occasions the consideration of the flat rate of eh taxation system has been considered with home mortgages. This particular factor has been discussed as per the various types of the consideration of the fixed taxation system which will be able to eliminate the various types of the existing deductions to simplify the taxes (Heinemann Kocher, 2013). Advantages The main form of the advantage of the fixed taxation system has been seen with the simplicity component. The varied type of the other factors related to the consideration of the flat tax system has been included for the ease of computation by the internal revenue service and straightforward payments from taxpayers. The flat form of the tax has is seen to be considered with various types of the significant factors which has been seen to be related to the consideration of the taxes with a single source of income. This makes the report easier to understand. The different type of the other consideration of the taxation system is based on factors related to the elimination of double taxation. The concept of the flat taxation has been considered to be popular for the purpose of the varied types of the other factors which has been seen to be taken into account with different factors which is directly seen to be associated to the implementation of the present IRS regulation (Azrina Mohd Yuso f et al., 2014). This particular system of the taxation has been able to eliminate the varied type of the factors for eliminating death tax and capital gains in addition to the double taxation. The flat system of the tax includes the various types of the factors which have been seen to be related to the differed types of the consideration for elimination of the unnecessary payment of interest and dividend at individual levels. The flat rate of the taxation system is able to eliminate the different the factors which has been seen to be associated to global tax system at a global scale on long-term basis. The varied type of the consideration for the fixed rate of the taxation system is able to take into consideration the fairness factor. For instance a taxpayer making $ 5000 is seen to earn $ 500000. The tax payer making a payment of $ 500000 has been able to simple consider greater income with the percentage of income made by an individual (Mookhey, 2013). Disadvantages The opponent of the fixed rate of tax system has been able to discern that the low income segment of the population has been seen to be considered with the lower amount of the payment of the taxation has been seen to directly associated with the individuals with lower income. The various types of the negative aspects of the fixed taxation is associated to the different type of the families of lower income group need to consideration of the expenditure of the same amount as with the individuals having higher rated of income. IRS implementation is taken into account with imposing numerous trained personnels in the fixed rate of the taxation system. Several individuals are seen to believe that the flat rate of the taxation system has been seen to reduce the overall tax and the actual form of the tax benefitted from the same. The tax rate is taken onto consideration with those individuals who are directly seen to be associated to the several form of detrimental factors such as inequity i n the economic system (Liu, 2013). Analysis and Interpretation Based on the several types of the considerations of the progsressive and the regressive taxation system it has been seen to be discerned that the fixed system of the taxation has been seen to be evident with entities with low income that needs to consider a payment of higher amount among the higher income group. The consideration of the progressive taxes has been seen to be evident with present federal income tax in the U.S. and Alberta province of Canada with a particular proportion of tax liability, which is seen to increase based on the individual income level. The various types of the consideration related to the tax burden consider high income earners among the lower or middle income group of people. The consideration of the progressive taxation system is seen to be based on present taxation system followed in Canada. In this system the tax burden increases with the increase in income of the entity. The rationale for the shift from flat taxation to progressive taxation has been discerned with the fact that Albertans wanted higher taxes at higher income levels. The people who can afford to pay the little extra amount should be only included in the higher tax slabs. The government introduced a new health-care contribution levy applied on progressive basis to individuals having annual income of more than $ 50000. In case of the flat taxation system the tax payers would have to still bear this levy, which was not favoured by many individuals. After the introduction of progressive taxation, individuals with more than $100,000 annually and $250,000 annually, experienced an increase of 0.5 percentage points in each of the next three years. This will lead to an overall increase of 11.5% by 2018 (Saad, 2014). Conclusion The main depictions of the study have been able to reveal that progressive taxation system is considered to be fairer than fixed taxation system. In case of fixed taxes, individuals and entities with lower income often need to pay a higher amount of taxes as compared to the individuals with high income. The implementation of the tax liability as per the ability to pay has been more prominent under progressive taxes. In case of progressive tax, proportion of tax liability is seen to increase based on individual level of income. Some of the other recommendation for the progressive tax has been done with inclusion of gross receipts, per capita taxes and occupational taxes. The income and profits are considered as per progressive or increasing tax rate schedule. The Marginal tax rates are often considered with payment of average tax rates. Based on the discerned assessment taxes paid by a taxpayer is appropriate given his or her income level in the province of Alberta in Canada. The main rationale for this is mainly due to the adherence of progressive taxes in province of Alberta in Canada. The main reason for the shift from flat taxation to progressive taxation in Alberta province has been discerned with the fact that Albertans wanted higher taxes at higher income levels. References Alm, J. (2014). Does an uncertain tax system encourage aggressive tax planning? Economic Analysis and Policy, 44(1), 3038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eap.2014.01.004 Azrina Mohd Yusof, N., Ming Ling, L., Bee Wah, Y. (2014). Tax non-compliance among SMCs in Malaysia: tax audit evidence. Journal of Applied Accounting Research, 15(2), 215234. https://doi.org/10.1108/JAAR-02-2013-0016 Bacher, H. U., Brlhart, M. (2013). Progressive taxes and firm births. International Tax and Public Finance, 20(1), 129168. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10797-012-9218-z Chiroleu-Assouline, M., Fodha, M. (2014). From regressive pollution taxes to progressive environmental tax reforms. European Economic Review, 69, 126142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2013.12.006 Doerrenberg, P., Peichl, A. (2013). Progressive taxation and tax morale. Public Choice, 155(34), 293316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-011-9848-1 Heinemann, F., Kocher, M. G. (2013). Tax compliance under tax regime changes. International Tax and Public Finance, 20(2), 225246. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10797-012-9222-3 Isa, K. (2014). Tax complexities in the Malaysian corporate tax system: minimise to maximise. International Journal of Law and Management, 56(1), 5065. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJLMA-08-2013-0036 Lee, K. (2016). Morality, tax evasion, and equity. Mathematical Social Sciences, 82, 97104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mathsocsci.2016.05.003 Liu, A. A. (2013). Tax evasion and optimal environmental taxes. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 66(3), 656670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2013.06.004 Mookhey, S. (2013). Tax disputes system design. eJournal of Tax Research, 11(1), 7996. Mustapha, B., Obid, S. N. B. S. (2015). Tax Service Quality: The Mediating Effect of Perceived Ease of Use of the Online Tax System. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.328 Pntya, J., Kovcs, J., Kogler, C., Kirchler, E. (2016). Work performance and tax compliance in flat and progressive tax systems. Journal of Economic Psychology, 56, 262273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2016.08.002 Saad, N. (2014). Tax Knowledge, Tax Complexity and Tax Compliance: Taxpayers View. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 109, 10691075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.590 Saez, E. (2013). Optimal progressive capital income taxes in the infinite horizon model. Journal of Public Economics, 97(1), 6174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2012.09.002

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Second Industrial Revolution free essay sample

Running Head: After reviewing the several links discussing labor conditions and the use of child labor, write a two to three page paper answering the following questions: 1. Why was there such widespread use of  children in the mines and factories? 2. What affect did investigations of child labor have on industry? 3. What labor reforms came out of these investigations? The Second Industrial Revolution (1840-1900) James Hager Touro University International HIS# 101 Professor Dr. Amarjit Gill Module 1 (Case Assignment) During the industrial revolution many factories and mines did everything they could to exploit women and children by having them work in less than desirable conditions. Women and child labor was used for many years in many different industrial positions that would normally only be worked by men. The reason for this use was due to the fact of the companies could find more women and children that they could basically force into working the jobs that no one else would want to work, for little if not no money at all. We will write a custom essay sample on The Second Industrial Revolution or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Another reason was because of the abundance of women and children available to be used to fill the positions. Women and children were sometimes sold into â€Å"slavery† if you will, and forced to live in the factories or very close to them, possibly even in compounds that surrounded the factories and mines, and were not allowed to leave the confines of their work areas until their time was worked off. Many of these people were sold by their parents t an early age, even at 6 years of age these kids were being sold off for couple of dollars for a six year contract basically†¦ so at the age of 6 these kids were basically being sold into slavery by their parents for a few dollars, and then by the time that they completed the 6 years or more that they were enslaved for they were basically released, but as many of them only knew the life of working in the mils and mines many of them remained. Some of the reason parents sent their children to work in the substandard condition without what seemed like any care, was because they themselves had worked in the same conditions when they were younger, and expected their children to do the same. Some of these parents did not even bother to find work while their children were working in these harsh environments, they just lived off of the money their kids made for working many 12+hr shifts, basically leaving the kids to have nothing out of all of the hard work that they did each day, except for maybe a meal or two.. f they were even given that chance. The term child labor generally refers to children who work to produce a good or a service which can be sold for money in the marketplace regardless of whether or not they are paid for their work. During the times that these children were at work they would be constantly beaten severely for doing nothing more than slowing in their work, and not being able to produce the quantity or the quality that the â€Å"master† wanted and expected. Although movements to abolish slavery started in the early 1800’s, in Great Britain, slavery remained quite active especially by the slavery of women and children for many more years to come and it wasn’t until 1833 that work to make the working conditions of these enslaved children and women better began. Not only was it the savings in money for pay that they companies used women and children in the mils and mines, as it was that there were more women and children available that they could exploit then there were men at the time. Children will do anything they are told to do, and not usually fight it or ask any questions. They could have more children working in substandard conditions. These workers were forced to put in over 70 hrs in a week, even once machines and motors were used to create more of a mass production of the products. These machines allowed more to be produced and with a better quality than when it was done before by hand, but these machines still required someone to operate them, and to maintain them. As well as to keep them loaded with the required supplies to produce the products, as well as having someone there to remove the finished product as quickly as possible, so that the operator could continue to produce more as quickly as they could. It was not at all common for workers to work in excess of 19hrs a day with no extra pay, or any other benefits for working the added hours. The way I look at what they did back then, was factories looked at women and child labor to be the same as some farmers and such in the US do with Mexicans now days. They figure they can have twice or more the amount of workers for half the price that they would have paid US citizens, and this allows them to get more work done for less money, allowing them to sell more make more profit in the end, and this also will allow them to stay ahead of their competition. I do not condone these actions, but they are going on, and I thought it best explained the reason industries did this back during the Industrial Revolution. There were investigations that were conducted by a parliamentary investigation committee, on the child labor in both the mils as well as the mines. These investigations were started after Michael Sadler with a parliamentary commission, and the Ashley Commission; named after its leader, Anthony Ashley Cooper (Lord Ashley); brought proof to the House of Commons, and invited people from different backgrounds to come and see the conditions these children and women were forced to work in, at both the factories as well as the mines. The Sadler commission interviewed 89 of the witnesses that had seen the harsh conditions, as well as many of the workers that were actually forced to work in the condition, and afterwards took these interviews along with all of the findings of the commissions to the House of Commons where Lord Ashley purposed a bill that would restrict children to working a max of 10hrs a day. The members voted against the bill 238 votes to 93. But due to the information gathered by both the Sadler commission as well as the Ashley commission they did realize that the children needed some sort of protection set forth, and they sent an act of their own to the Parliament for approval which was the 1833 Factory ACT, which was approved by Parliament the 29th of August 1833. Under the terms of the new act, it became illegal for children under nine to work in textile factories, whereas children aged between nine and thirteen could not be employed for more than eight hours a day. The main disappointment of the reformers was that children over thirteen were allowed to work for up to twelve hours a day. They also complained that with the employment of only four inspectors to monitor this legislation, factory owners would continue to employ very young children. And this did continue for many years as there was a lack of supervision to verify that factory owners were in fact following the new laws. Although the factory owners did continue to employ younger workers, and overwork all of the children, way past the limit of 8-12hrs a day as set by the act, there was still a definite loss of workers and production time as they did have to cut workers, and cut the hours they were working so as to not be shut down or fined once they were caught. Factories were not able to put out near the quantity that they were able to produce before the act, and they were not able to function around the clock as they had before, as part of the act limited the latest time of the night that a child could work, and the earliest in the morning they could come to work†¦ thus limiting the operation hours of the factory so this dropped a good portion of production. As far as factory owners not abiding by the laws that were set as far as the child labor goes, it is not known whether it was an increase in demand or an increase in supply, but the argument that child labor laws were not considered much of a deterrent to employers or families is fairly convincing. Many factory owners as well as the families of the children working in these facilities did not seem too much care about the fines that were imposed by those who were found to be in contempt of the law, as the fines were usually way under what the children brought in, and well under what the products the children were producing were making for the factory owners. It is just as if you have a small town inside of a district, inside of a county†¦ the county makes a law about something, and the city you live in only has one cop, and he doesn’t seem to really care for the new law†¦ well you are willing to take a chance that that one cop will be the only one to catch you, and let you go†¦ so you are willing to still do whatever it is that is against the law and willing to take the lick for that one time that you do get caught, as you got away with it many more times making it more worth the chance of punishment. Well without the proper supervision and authorities to enforce the laws it could not be expected that the factory owners, as well as the families of the children were going to make any changes to a good thing they had going, for the chance of getting caught that one time, and having to pay what would be a small fee to them, considering all that they made while they were getting away with it. There were many things that changed during the Industrial Revolution; one of those things was the child labor in industry. There was a huge issue with child labor in factories, mills, and even mines that many people during the time frame did not even know was going on, much less posing a problem. Once the issue was brought to light in front of the right people, and was pursued by people who were not willing to let down they were able to get the information in position in front of politicians that made the appropriate laws such as the Factory Act of 1802, 1833, 1844, 1847, 1850, 1867, 1874, 1891 and many other similar acts. These acts put a huge damper on factory owners and caused their production numbers to fall, thus causing their profits to drop. This was a crushing blow to these owners that they did not want to accept and many of them continued to employ the children until newer acts, and more supervision was available to verify that they comply with the new laws as they came out.